Literature review is an integral part of the research proposal, as it demonstrates the current state of knowledge on the subject, and allows to evaluate any gaps in knowledge that the proposed research can address. The first step in a literature review is collecting the information on the subject (Wee & Banister, 2016). It can be done using Google Scholar, the university’s library, and various databases on academic literature. Keywords are useful for finding resources of interest pertaining the subject.
The second part is reading through the available resources and evaluating them based on the author’s position, the reliability of the source, and any biases present. It would allow differentiating between sources and picking those that have the highest validity and reliability (Wee & Banister, 2016). The relation of the findings to the subject is also important, as the initial search provides many generalized results.
The third part is splitting the findings into themes and general ideas that they support or oppose. The paragraphs can be split based on these ideas, followed by the citations of findings to oppose or support a certain idea (Wee & Banister, 2016). On the subject of leading change, the introductory paragraph could be written about what change is, with different definitions provided by different scholars. It could be followed by brief descriptions of different theories of change that could be used to inform the research. Finally, the rest can be dedicated to exploring and narrowing down the subject, answering specific questions in relation to it, and providing opposing viewpoints to ensure criticality (Wee & Banister, 2016). Direct citations should be few and shorter, as summarizing of larger points is often preferable.
A literature review should be ended with a small conclusion about the state of research, the gaps in knowledge found, and the explanation about how the research will address these gaps. General critical appraisal of the available sources should be included (Wee & Banister, 2016). Any major points that will inform the research are also to be highlighted in this section.
Wee, B. V., & Banister, D. (2016). How to write a literature review paper?. Transpo Reviews, 36(2), 278-288.