The purpose of this study as stated by the authors is to measure job satisfaction among the teachers. In Ghana, there is a tendency for teachers to demand better pay and organizational justice. These, as the authors describe them, ‘turnover intentions’ correlate with the lack of these qualities of work, as well as job satisfaction, and distributive and procedural justice.
The presented study is experimental, as the effect of multiple variables on the turnover intentions variable is measured. The main DV is turnover intentions, as the study aims to measure the factors influencing it. The IVs are distributive, interactional, and procedural justice, pay, supervision, work, and promotion. The only PV distinguishing the participants of the study was their gender. The participants were 120 Senior High School teachers from the Offinso South district of the Ashanti region of Ghana (Addai et al., 2018). 114 participants returned their questionnaires; of them, 59 were men and 55 were women.
The main scales of the study are organizational justice, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Organizational justice was measured with the Organizational Justice Index, which has 20 items rated on a 4-point scale. Job satisfaction was measured with the Teachers Satisfaction Scale, which has 16 items rated on a 4-point scale. Turnover intentions were measured with the turnover intention scale, which has 10 items rated on a 4-point scale as well.
According to the results of the study, pay has the most influence on turnover intentions, while interactional justice has the least influence. The regression analysis the authors conducted shows that job satisfaction and all of its components explain 25.2% of differences in the rate of turnover intentions (Addai et al., 2018). However, taking each component of job satisfaction at a time has allowed us to discover that pay is the component constituting most of the difference. Other components of job satisfaction such as supervision or promotion did not have a significant influence on turnover intentions. As for organizational justice, the Multiple Regression Analysis has demonstrated that all of the components of organizational justice make for a 24.1% difference in turnover intentions (Addai et al., 2018). Here, the parts of the components have spread more evenly, with both distributive justice and procedural justice having a significant influence on turnover intentions, with only the interactional justice being less impactful.
Thus, the result of the study establishes that job satisfaction and organizational justice have significant influence over the variety of turnover intentions of teachers in Ghana. Of the individual components of these factors, pay, as well as distributive justice and procedural justice, are the most widespread reasons for the growing turnover intentions in the area of study (namely, the Offinso south district of the Ashanti region).
In many contemporary studies, the authors state a theory that the color red can increase men’s attraction to women. However, the authors of the examined article have found that the reasoning behind this statement is doubtful. As previous studies have only worked with young women as targets and young men as participants, there is a possibility for further research. Schwarz & Singer (2013) have proposed a hypothesis that older women, aged 50 and more, should have no significant increase in their perceived attractiveness because of their color. However, they admit that the color might lead to at least a small increase for all targets regardless of their age, or the participants’ age. The purpose of the study is therefore to check the hypothesis.
The study is experimental, as the effect of multiple variables on perceived attractiveness is measured. DVs are sexual attractiveness, physical attractiveness, intelligence, and sympathy from the participant’s point of view. The IVs are age, background color, facial expression, and dress. There is only one PV, which is the age of the participants. The participants of the study are 120 men divided into two groups: a younger group (mean age 24.67 years), and a group of older men (mean age 53.47 years) (Schwarz & Singer, 2013). They were recruited in a shopping district in a German city, and a university campus.
The method of the study is straightforward, as the participants were simply asked to rate their physical attractiveness, intelligence, and their sympathy for the female targets. Then, they were asked about the degree of influence the facial expression, dress, and color of
the background had on their ratings. For all of the items, they had to give a rating on a 9-point scale. Lastly, the participants had to estimate the age of the women.
The authors have started their analysis with the estimated age; the participants have guessed it generally correctly. The younger targets have been considered more sexually attractive, especially the ones in front of the red background. Simultaneously, it did not influence the ratings of the older targets. Both the younger and the older groups of participants viewed younger targets as the more attractive ones, yet the older group considered older targets attractive as well. As for other perceived qualities such as intelligence, the color red did not have importance for them, with facial expression and dress being significant in this regard.
Overall, as the study demonstrates, the color red has an impact on the sexual attractiveness of young women. However, the old targets were not perceived as more sexually attractive against the red background. While color has not demonstrated a significant influence on physical attractiveness, the authors admit that it may have a more important part in an assessment of the more sexually explicit situations rather than general attractiveness. With background color not being particularly important as well, the authors conclude that color has a very specific influence on young women’s attractiveness.
Addai, P., Kyeremeh, E., Abdulai, W., & Sarfo, J.O. (2018). Organizational justice and job satisfaction as predictors of turnover intentions among teachers in the Offinso south district of Ghana. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 7(2), 235–243.
Schwarz, S., & Singer, M. (2013). Romantic red revisited: Red enhances men’s attraction to young, but not menopausal women. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(1), 161–164.