According to studies, pupils who devote more time to academic subjects obtain higher grades. Although it is evident that dedicating proper time to the academic subject is critical, scheduling time is insufficient. Learning outcomes are determined by how this time is utilized in classrooms. Scholars established the following time, engaged time, and academic learning time to examine the usage of classroom time. Allocated time is the time set aside by a teacher for a subject, such as 30 minutes each day for arithmetic (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). Engaged time is when students are actively engaged in academic subject matter, such as engaging in a group discussion, writing an essay, or solving arithmetic problems, during their allotted time. Student performance rises when there is more engaged time. In certain circumstances, engaged time is less than 50%, while greater than 90% in others (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016, p.353). The more time allocated to a topic, the higher the likelihood of student performance in that area
While there is no single optimum teaching management strategy, the good news is that you can start considering which method resonates with you. Digging deeper is one of the classroom management techniques. The instructor should keep her eyes on the back of her head when managing a classroom. Adequate teaching guarantees that the teacher is aware of what is going on at the school and the habits of the students. While attending the lesson, the instructor should attend to disruptions or behavioral issues (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). The instructor needs to use the concepts of least intervention to deal with ordinary misconduct. Teachers should utilize the most accessible solution because research suggests that time spent disciplining kids is inversely associated with accomplishment. Effective classroom management entails the teacher seamlessly transitioning from one lesson to another, avoiding the jarring transition known as disintegration.
Nearly every day, instructors must manage numerous essential transitions in class. Disciplinary issues arise twice as frequently during these transitions as they do during regular classroom teaching. During transition periods, recurring trends are shown to be undermining classroom management (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). They include flip-flops, over-concentration on one thing, and fragmentation in which the teacher divides directions into multiple choppy steps rather than completing them all at once.
Effective teaching necessitates preparation, and studies show that good behavioral managers are also good planners. They actively and explicitly teach standards or norms of good student behavior beginning on the first day of school. Teachers frequently model other actions by getting help, leaving the room, going to the pencil sharpener. Teachers establish appropriate rules to guide student behavior (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). The prevention of difficulties follows a succession of critical activities involving teachers. Teachers ensure that students observe and adhere to the regulations that have been established. In the event of any repercussions, they should be dealt with appropriately and without overreacting.
Stage of Learning
The teacher set a stage for learning through the following steps.
- Identifying goals. The goals of each lesson should be communicated to students by teachers. Students, like teachers, require a map of where they are going and why they are going.
- Review. While providing new knowledge, the instructor should assist students in reviewing previous knowledge, and if there is any confusion, the teacher should reteach.
- Motivation. The instructor should develop an anticipating set to encourage pupils to pay attention in class (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). The teacher should throw an inquiry or a joke.
- Transition. To help pupils integrate old and new material, the teacher should establish linkages.
- Clarification. The instructor should decompose a vast amount of data into smaller chunks.
- Directions. The instructor should speak clearly and gently when giving tips. If pupils are unsure what they are expected to do, repeat it or break it into smaller chunks.
In any course style, good question design is critical to success. Asking a good question translates to appropriately educating and empowering students. The excellent role of the teacher and the stimulation to thought, encouragement to activity, resides more than anything else in the clever use of the questioning. Asking questions is an important skill to learn, and all learners should have an opportunity to ask questions and participate in the classroom (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). Instructors pose questions to help students comprehend the subject or lesson they are learning. It demonstrates whether the learner understood the content. To inquire is to know more, and boys tend to ask more questions than girls.
The hierarchy shows the progression of questions from the most basic to the most complex. The instructor employs taxonomy to create, evaluate, analyze, apply, understand, and remember classifying questions. Students must be able to recall or recognize material to place it. Understanding necessitates that students go beyond simply memorization and display adequate comprehension to organize and arrange data (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). To solve an issue, students must apply already taught material. Students must employ three types of cognitive processes when analyzing: identifying causes, reasons, or motives. Students must evaluate the merits of an aesthetic work when evaluating. Finally, creating necessitates the employment of completely original thinking by students to generate original messages.
Although it is critical to keep classroom conversation flowing at a high pace, teachers occasionally go too fast. During a group discussion, stopping down at two crucial points can usually improve the effectiveness and equity of the responses (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). Teachers might use the time between questions to ask another learner or to respond to the questions themselves. Great strides in the number and quality of students are frequently seen when teachers learn to raise their wait time from one second to three seconds to five seconds. It encourages changes in student behavior, such as more classroom participation and fewer discipline issues disrupting the class.
An example of teacher’s feedback is when the teacher asked the learners the same questions, and noticed they had diverse responses. However, all the answers were correct according to each student’s unique rationale and capacity. Before telling the flannel board story, the teacher asks relevant lower-order questions to ensure that the pupils understand crucial vocabulary phrases. Teachers reply to inquiries in a variety of way; they may or may not agree with the responses presented (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). Praise, acceptance, remediation, and criticism are the four sorts of feedback reactions used by teachers. Acceptance reactions are commonly used by teachers, followed by remedial. Specific and reliant on student achievement, positive communication follows. Feedback gives you a clear picture of how well you’re doing.
Use of Technology
Effective teaching entails the use of technological solutions and tools. The SAMR model is used to describe the various levels of technology utilized in education. Enhancement, transformation, augmentation, and redefinition are the layers. Teachers frequently concentrate on the first two levels while using technology in classrooms. They may, for example, replace paper teachings and worksheets with PowerPoint slides and distribute them online (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). Additional substitution technologies assist in modifying the delivery, not the substance, of information such as timetables, classroom announcements, and text messaging or mail conversations with parents. Learners can use augmentation tools to enrich knowledge by constructing a professional presence of their multimedia work to add ideas and photographs.
Students collaborate on exercises in small workgroups in a collaborative learning classroom, and they frequently receive prizes or acknowledgment based on the overall group performance. The competition structure results in distinct winners and losers, with only a small number of winners and losers possible (Revolve Learning, 2017). Cooperative learning differs from competitive learning in that students rely on one another and collaborate to achieve common goals. To begin with, groups should be diverse and considerably small. The groupings should be circular to allow pupils to interact easily. A shared group aim and shared materials can build positive cooperation among group members. Collaborative learning fosters both mental and emotional development, giving students a sense of self-worth and motivation for learning.
The manner in which a classroom is set on the first day communicates a lot about the instructor. Some characteristics, such as doors, windows, and built-ins, are beyond the teacher’s control, but they can make a significant difference (Kauchak & Eggen, 2016). An instructor should always present a positive image to your classmates. For practical learning, the exhibitions on the walls should be appealing. Teachers must ensure that the desks are correctly organized, to facilitate good interactions with the students.
In conclusion, it is essential for teachers to observe proper content delivery procedures. The use of technology has improved students’ cognitive development and continuous improvement in performance at various levels. The use of wait time and instructor’s feedback have important roles in promoting students’ learning and content retention. Cooperative learning is a crucial aspect as students participate in peer groups and learn to coordinate effectively. The physical arrangements also contribute significantly to creating a conducive environment for learning.
Kauchak, D., & Eggen, P. (2016). Introduction to teaching: Becoming a professional 6th ed). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson.
Revolve Learning. (2017). Teaching reading | character traits for 3rd graders [Video file]. Web.