With the integration of technology in education, there is a shift from offline reading to online reading. Based on the definition, offline reading occurs through printed texts, while online reading happens through screens and electronic texts, especially web-based reading materials (Dwyer, 2016). Unlike offline reading, where text is bound within the covers of a book, an online reader has the mandate of assembling potential text for reading. As a result, reading online requires the readers to deepen their skills to navigate, locate and synthesize the information presented through various websites. In addition, online readers must have computer skills to navigate through the internet and obtain the required texts (Dwyer, 2016). Therefore, contrary to offline reading, online reading depends entirely on information technology.
Compared with online reading, offline reading is better for focus and memory retention. Offline reading is free from distractions from online ads that may take the reader’s attention. It offers more fixity and solidity to the reader’s sense of the progress of the text (Dwyer, 2016). This is an indication that the reader has the ability to concentrate when reading. However, online reading exposes an individual to several distractions. A digital text reader can easily shift from reading to other web pages such as Facebook, YouTube, and others. With this distraction, it is challenging for an online reader to focus on the text. As a result, students have more focus when reading printed texts than when reading digital texts.
The New Literacies of Online Research and Comprehension
|Identifying important questions||Online study and understanding usually start with a problem. People read online to solve issues and respond to questions (Dwyer, 2016). The effectiveness of online reading depends on the ability of a reader to respond to the research questions.|
|Locating information||Online reading requires the ability to identify material online. It is not intuitive to know what to seek and acquire material from the internet (Dwyer, 2016). There is a need for a complicated set of abilities for which many students are not always well equipped.|
|Analyzing information||Critical thinking and assessment are vital capabilities for all readers, both online and offline. Due to the new ways with which information is displayed on the internet, it is critical to grasp how to evaluate search engine results (Dwyer, 2016).|
|Synthesizing Information||Synthesis is an integral component of online reading comprehension. To solve the problems, online readers are expected to synthesize the meaning of the text and actively construct the texts they read as a result of the decisions they make about the sites to visit (Dwyer, 2016).|
|Communicating Information||There are several communication tools on the internet, each with social practices. Readers can use communication tools such as email, prompt texts, blogs, discussion boards, and video conferencing to read and understand information on the internet (Dwyer, 2016).|
Developing Students’ Online Reading Comprehension
Teachers play an integral role in developing online reading comprehension and internet research skills. To achieve this, a teacher can use socially mediated experiences where they directly interact with students. This will assist a teacher in creating a positive relationship with learners. The second approach to teaching the concept is using an internet workshop (Zhang et al., 2011). The model is important because it introduces students to internet sites and develops crucial background knowledge. It involves activities such as locating a site, creating tasks requiring the students to use the site, assigning the tasks, and conducting a workshop. The third approach that a teacher can use is internet inquiry. In this case, students examine the information and prepare a report. Therefore, teachers should use models such as socially mediated, internet workshop, and internet inquiry to equip the students with online reading comprehension skills.
TPACK is an acronym for technological pedagogical content and knowledge. The framework provides a new model for integrating technology into education and how to offer the best educational experience for students. In addition, it was designed to illustrate a set of knowledge that educators need to teach their learners, teach efficiently and use technology (Koehler et al., 2013). The TPACK framework strives to enhance this study and scholarly heritage by incorporating technology into the types of knowledge that teachers must examine when teaching. The framework plays an important role in facilitating effective teaching. For example, with the advancement in technology, an educator is supposed to integrate technological concepts when teaching students (Koehler et al., 2013). As a result, the framework aims to aid in the development of improved tools for identifying and documenting how technology-related professional knowledge is implemented and instantiated in practice.
The three cores of TPACK are content, pedagogy, and technology. Content knowledge refers to the teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter. For example, this knowledge includes scientific facts, theories, and evidence-based reasoning. Pedagogy knowledge is an educator’s deep knowledge of the operations of teaching and learning (Koehler et al., 2013). For instance, it includes designing engaging classroom environments that allow maximum student activity and self-regulation. Technological knowledge is the educators’ knowledge of or ability to use different technical tools. For example, a teacher’s ability to use the internet or smart boards as tools for learning. Therefore, the main components of the model are content, pedagogy, and technological knowledge.
The Use of TPAC in Planning Lessons
TPAC plays an integral role in developing a lesson plan because it provides the main aspects that should be included in the plan. The three primary components of the model; content, pedagogy, and technology, help design a teaching plan (Koehler et al., 2013). Firstly, an educator must create content that meets learners’ needs. The content is the core of the lesson plan because it shows the concepts that it explores. Secondly, the plan should incorporate the pedagogical knowledge of teaching (Koehler et al., 2013). For example, some of the methods used for new concepts are experiential and inquiry-based learning. Experiential learning allows a learner to explore and practice. Thirdly, the lesson plan should integrate technology, especially in the contemporary environment. For instance, an educator can consider using google meet and other technologies to conduct online learning.
My Skill Level in The TPAC Method
My skill level in the TPAC model has increased tremendously after reading the texts. I discovered that TPAC is an important part of the education system because it incorporates the growing demand for technology, a good understanding of teaching practices, and the creation of effective content (Koehler et al., 2013). It forms the efficiency in the delivery of the lesson plan with the integration of technology. It is an application in all aspects of learning, which are integral in teaching and learning. I now understand that TPAC is a model that assists educators to contemplate on their learning domains interconnect to effectively teach and engage learners with technology (Koehler et al., 2013). It offers educators an opportunity to develop professional development and competency. For example, there is a need for educators to integrate technology into teaching. Therefore, I now have the ability to incorporate the TPAC model into learning.
I have strengths and weaknesses in using the TPAC model in teaching and learning. Based on my strength, I can apply the three components of the framework in developing an effective lesson plan. It allows teachers to analyze and reflect on their practices and how technology is integrated into the class. In addition, through the model, I now understand the intersection between content, pedagogy, and technology. It promotes contemporary learning as I recognize the importance of technology in teaching and learning. In terms of weaknesses, I feel that the meaning of various knowledge domains is inadequate. I believe that more can be done to describe the domains effectively. The model has strengths and weaknesses that should be considered during application.
To increase my command of the TPAC model, I will focus on increasing my knowledge. Firstly, I collect reliable and peer-reviewed sources that address the model from various sources. Then, I will read and analyze the contents and identify shortcomings. Secondly, I will conduct research to address the problems identified and questions derived from the reading. Based on this, I will be able to improve my understanding of the TPAC model.
Dwyer, B. (2016). Engaging all students in internet research and inquiry. The Reading Teacher, 69(4), 383-389.
Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., & Cain, W. (2013). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)? Journal of education, 193(3), 13-19.
Zhang, S., Duke, N. K., & Jiménez, L. M. (2011). The WWWDOT approach to improving students’ critical evaluation of websites. The Reading Teacher, 65(2), 150-158.