Online Teaching and Learning in Primary Schools

Topic: Approach to Learning
Words: 2250 Pages: 8


In Saudi Arabia, online learning and teaching are witnessing uncontrollable growth. The demand for e-learning in this country has grown by over 479 percent, according to a study done between 2005 and 2009 (Aljaber, 2018). There has been a rise in students joining high school, a fact which has attributed to the education ministry to encourage the adoption of online learning and teaching (Al-Juda, 2017). Currently, the nation is enjoying the developed e-learning, which functions as an alternative and complement system of teaching and learning.

The adoption of this study and teaching method in the country started to gain acceptance upon the development of the World Wide Web. This was then reinforced with the creation of the one-way video network, connected to a two-audio network (Aljaber, 2018). The national government has since adopted the technological plan, which started to gain acceptance in 2007, which has so far worked to drive ICT at all learning levels. Primary education is now over-embracing these learning mechanisms, following the teachers’ dedication (Online learning consortium, n.d.). There are various benefits of using online learning, as attributed by (Alshahrani, Ahmed, & Ward, 2017). For instance, the author reveals e-learning improves the relationship to have a long-lasting and positive implication on both the social and academic development of students. Further, the program easily supports students to attain achievements at a higher level.

Literature Review

Under literature review, the researcher will engage in reviewing literature that is relevant to this study. That will reveal the available perception about e-learning towards the learners and teachers as it occurs in the mainstream of k-12 classes, which involves primary level students. In various studies which have explored the perception of learners and teachers in this category, it shows e-learning has, since its inception, positively influence education.

There is various literature that stipulates how countries adapted to e-learning, specifically during this COVID-19 period. This is a true indication of how online teaching and studying has influenced students in this country. Sudden change, according to Mann et al. (2020), especially in the manner of study, depends on the peers’ support and enabling of teachers as professionals to adopt the reality of online teaching. The collaborative culture which has prevailed in primary schools lately has been fostering collaboration and collegiality among teachers. In Saudi Arabia as a country, Mann et al. (2020) reveal that close to 36% of the teachers engage in professional collaborative teaching and learning in their schools. Such teaching and learning are relative to a higher degree of interdependence among teachers. This also initiated the aspect of effective teaching practices, such as the use of the cognitive application (Mann et al., 2020). This source reveals that online teaching in Saudi Arabia has fostered collaboration among teachers and the use of effective teaching skills.

Online teaching has as well supported tapping into the available e-learning resources. According to Mann et al.’s (2020) study, internet-related teaching facilitates the dissemination of instructional materials, information, and remote learning across schools in Hail City. For instance, online teaching requires familiarity with internet interaction and the acquisition of materials. This equips students to be able to share and communicate information directly with the school communities through the internet platforms (Gorard, 2004). Currently, close to 23% of teachers in this region since the onset of COVID-19 have participated in online seminars and courses. This is in connection with a survey done by Mann et al. (2020), an insinuation that the need to teach and learn online has provoked the embrace of this system in delivering information.

A study by Alwahoub, Latiff, and Jomaa (2020) puts it right that e-learning involves the application of distance learning through advanced technologies. These technologies include multimedia, international networks, electronic libraries, and educational applications. The main aim of this learning and teaching system is to ensure the deliverance of information effectively, easily, and quickly in the environment of this institution (Abueish & English, 2020). The purpose here is to make learning more attainable through this mechanism as a facilitation platform.

Rationale for The Study

Online teaching and learning in primary schools happen in an instructional system which is flexible, and characterized as a learning platform through the internet. The internet makes students reach their educators easily considering for some reason, some are unable to enroll in traditional classroom courses. Primary students however require much attention as they depend on the teachers for guidance in studies. This mechanism of study impacts them either positively or negatively. In Saudi Arabia, a few scholars have studied about this concept, and therefore, this study adds worth to academic databases for those seeking the effect of this strategy of teaching and learning in the country. Besides scrutinizing how the system affects the learners, the study is essential as it reveals the possibilities of teaching students in a virtual internet class in the country.


The design of this study entails exploring the impact of learning and teaching at home for primary schools of Hail city in Saudi Arabia. This research will employ a quantitative method, as data collection will occur through sampling techniques such as online surveys and polls and questionnaires. Additionally, this strategy according to Gorard (2004) is used in educational fields and in researches which employ mathematical theories to evaluate a phenomenon. In this regard, the research will have a direct and true representation of the outcome of online learning and teaching as it applies in real scenarios.

The teacher’s data will be collected as random sampling because it is needful to give a chance for each individual. Random sampling with regards to schools they teach will positively manage issues of biasness (Arthur & Andrew, 2012). In addition, random sampling has the power to strengthen the study because it is easier to generalize it to represent a larger target population (Alwahoub et al., 2020). In terms of calculation, descriptive statistics, including standard deviation and mean, will be used to discuss the responses of the students (Dunleavy, 2003). The method is essential as it will give room for the analysis of the perspective of the students and the teachers in a broader way.

Finding materials online Day 1-7 7 1st day 5
Doing research Day 7-12 5 7th day 6
Documentation Day 12-17 5 12th day 5

The image above shows key activities, start and duration of the project.

Study Design

This study will adhere to qualitative approach as explained under methodology section. However, the researcher will narrow down to longitudinal study, where the participating subjects are followed over time. This is essential as it gives room for the monitoring of risk factors and other possible factors to ensure relevance of the results. Given the nature of the research, it is needful for the researcher to repeatedly detect any changes which might occur over time. The best way to execute such as through longitudinal study, as majority of activities here will be collecting through observing various variables. The independent and dependent variables will be considered to ensure a proper result. The effectiveness which are overall perceived will work as dependent variables, and these includes perceived quality of this learning system, learning outcome and satisfaction. The independent variables are teacher to teacher interaction over time. After this, data source will be evaluated, which in this category entails human participants. They are the teachers interacting through online to supplement internet studying.



The main participants for this study will be the teachers based on various randomly selected primary schools in Hail City. The inclusion criteria will prioritize those teachers who use e-learning as this is the main target. Web-based questionnaires will be sent to the teachers, because it is easier to find teachers and have them use their technological knowledge to interact with the researcher. As the process continues, there will be consideration of the anonymity of the participants as well as ethical issues. Tutors are required to take part in the survey and study willingly.


The researcher here will use the internet and websites for this study even though there are various types of surveys. The reason for this is to ensure there is a total alignment of the relevance of the study to what is being studied. Therefore, the collection and distribution of the questionnaires will be done electronically. That means the use of computers will be central for this study to be a success (Arthur & Andrew, 2012). For convenience, the students’ and teachers’ questionnaires Google Forms will of important, and online questionnaire and software tools.

Methods of Data Analysis

The data analysis will be done using descriptive methods. The scale as mentioned above will as well be used under the category of 14 closed-ended items. These items will be analyzed as a way of noting the reliability of internet learning by the teachers (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2006). The researcher will employ the same mechanisms to the teachers, for the sake of outlining the survey’s internal consistency before doing the calculation to understand the trend and the impact.

The results will be considered independently through the identification of the mean scores of the data of the participants. Issues such as attitudes of the learners and the teachers towards e-learning and their experiences and their preferences will be noted, as it is this which will help make viable conclusion. From the previous study, this study will utilize the highest scores and lowest scores to determine whether the participants were supporting the online teaching.


That which make a research project a success is the access of the right and accurate data. This will be helpful in this regard, to make the project viable. The access of data therefore will happen through online surveys while engaging the participants. Practically, the researcher will record every interaction of the teachers with their students. Interviews will then be held, with questions directed to the learners on how they relate with their teachers through the web and how it could be the reality in a traditional setting.

Negative Side of Online Learning

The internet is over flooding with positive information for those who want to learn. There are various advantages linked to this, including low costs, flexibility, and accessibility. However, there are various negative aspects connected to this system of learning. For instance, online learning and teaching result in low quality, because students get exposed to wider study area in terms of doing research, which can waste their time. The approach also demeans the need for the face to face interaction, and, therefore, students will undermine the impact of not meeting instructors as well as other students in a physical environment.

Significance of The Research

The research aims at revealing the impacts of using a system to connect students and teachers in learning environment. The research therefore, seek to establish a reality of how students interact with the tutors for the sake of gaining education. The study will positively affect the theory by revealing whether students gains through this approach or is affects them negatively. As a result, it gives room for consumers to decide whether this learning method is recommendable.

Timescale / Research Planning

First Year

The first year will involve in-depth reading and research around the topic. This will also entail a continuous literature review for the sake of identifying the gaps in the experts’ opinion and the available knowledge. Secondly, this year will ensure the project’s specific aim to be identified on the basis of the researcher’s vision, preliminary data, and plan.

Second Year

The researcher will target agencies to be included in the research in regards to their objectives and relation to the study. This will help support a good fit for the project and formulation of interviews and surveys. All the contacted agencies will give instructions and guidelines on how to submit the surveys. There will also be a checklist of all the requirements of the agencies involved.

Third Year

At this stage, the draft for this proposal will be started in terms of budget and goals. Guidelines from sponsors, lecturers, and colleagues will be introduced at this stage. After which, the potential reviewers will be studied.

The Fourth Year

At this stage, the draft of the proposal will be performed in writing. The editing will be done after putting the proposal aside for at least two days.

The Following Week After Drafting

In one week’s time after drafting, the proposal will undergo re-writes based on the lecturer’s comments. This process can go on until close to the handing in of the final paper or until advised otherwise. Abstract and summary will then come in on the final week of submission. The two are written at the end because they are based on what has been written already. After this, the same week, the proposal will be submitted to the class.


It is important to note that Saudi Arabia is one of the states of the world, which has embraced technology. Through knowledge, they now utilize the internet and web-based programs to connect students and teachers. The literature review section notes that much of the study done in this area have been anchored on high education. This research notices that few studies have been done in the context of addressing primary schools. The study, therefore, aims at filling in the gap by handling research about online teaching and learning at home for primary students in Hail City. The participants are teachers and students, and the instruments are the websites and internets, plus computers.


Arthur, J. & Andrew, P. (2012). The Routledge Companion to Education. Oxon: Routledge.

Alwahoub, M. H., Latiff, N. & Jomaa, J. N. (2020). Teachers’ and students’ perceptions of e-learning integration in the primary schools of Saudi Arabia. E-Learning: Second Language Acquisition and Learning (SLA/SLL).

Alshahrani, S., Ahmed, E. & Ward, R. (2017). The influence of online resources on student–lecturer relationship in higher education: a comparison study. Journal of Computer Education, 4.

Aljaber, A. (2018). E-learning policy in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and successes. Sage Journal, 13(1). 176-194.

Al-Juda, M. Q. (2017). Distance learning students’ evaluation of e-learning system in University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(4). 324-331.

Dunleavy, P. (2003). Authoring a PhD. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Gall, M., Gall, J., & Borg, W. (2006). Educational Research. London: Allyn and Bacon (8th edition).

Gorard, S. (2004). Combining methods in educational and social research. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Mann, A., Schwabe, M., Fraser, P., Fulop, G. & Ansah, A. (2020). How the COVID-19 pandemic is changing education: A perspective from Saudi Arabia.

Luppicini, R., & Walabe, E. (2020). Exploring e-learning delivery in Saudi Arabian Universities. International Journal of E-Learning and Distance Education, 35(2).

Teddlie, C., & Tashakori, A. (2009). Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. London: Sage.

Online learning consortium (n.d.). The state of online learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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