The Application of Pedagogical Principles in Sports Science
The efficient application of both andragogical and pedagogical principles of education is crucial for any area of specialism and positive learning outcomes. According to Buckley (2019), “In the modern society, educators are tasked with the development of lifelong learners with the ability to thrive in an ever-changing complex world” (p. 20). It is pivotal for a sports science teacher to implement modern education approaches based on the theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner.
In particular, it is necessary to apply such andragogical principles as independent learning, individualization, and joint activity. Independent and individualized education is one of the main learning characteristics for adult students (Light & Clarke, 2021). At the same time, the joint activity of the teacher, the learner, and other students is necessary for an effective learning process. These andragogical principles rely on the educational theories of Piaget and Vygotsky. As noted by Quinn (2019), “Piaget’s theory was strongly based on individual learning” as opposed to Vygotsky’s approach, which emphasized the role of social and cultural factors in teaching others (p. 71). Moreover, compliance between goals, content, forms, and methods of learning is essential.
Pedagogical principles include moral development, systematicity, accessibility, and the connection of theory with practice. In physical education, it is particularly crucial that students develop not only knowledge and skills but also moral qualities and values (MacLellan et al., 2019). Furthermore, as per Bruner’s theory, the principles of systematicity and the accessibility of the material for learners are pivotal for positive outcomes (Ruixue, 2021). Knowledge must be available and correspond to the age-related characteristics of students. Finally, the pedagogical principle of connecting the theory of learning with practice in real life is essential for students to learn faster and more efficiently.
Demonstration of Core Elements in Planning, Delivering, and Assessing Inclusive Teaching
Minimum core elements in inclusive teaching and learning can be demonstrated in several ways. At the planning stage, it is critical to ensure that teachers have the required knowledge about supporting skill development in learners with special needs. Allam and Martin (2021) report that “most teachers teaching children with learning disabilities did not receive any special needs education training from the school, they feel that they are not qualified to teach the children with learning disability” (p. 37). Therefore, instructors must be aware of the importance of language, literacy, numeracy, and information and communication technology (ICT) for students (Nienkemper & Grotlüschen, 2019). Furthermore, while delivering inclusive teaching, it is necessary to select relevant activities and utilize a holistic approach that promotes an efficient learning process.
Sports science teachers can adapt teaching strategies and exercises to meet all learners’ needs. Combining physical and mental activity is the key to involving core elements and ensuring inclusive learning (Allam & Martin, 2021). For physical education lessons, computers and file-sharing platforms can be used to promote ICT skills in students (MacLellan et al., 2019). Furthermore, videos with instructions for games or activities can be implemented while delivering inclusive training. Language, literacy, and numeracy can be incorporated into sports science education in games (Nienkemper & Grotlüschen, 2019). Finally, the assessment stage is crucial, and trackers, pedometers, and heart rate monitors can be utilized to measure progress.
The Effectiveness of the Use of Creative and Innovative Approaches
There are various creative and innovative approaches to teaching sports science. As noted by Buckley (2019), “As we consider the modern society, it is becoming increasingly important that graduates possess attributes such as; self-awareness, confidence, decision-making skills, adaptability, problem solving and initiative” (p. 21). Therefore, in the contemporary context, using effective, innovative teaching techniques is critical to developing the qualities mentioned above in students.
In this regard, the efficiency of various methods needs to be evaluated. The tactical creativity approach is one of the most effective strategies, particularly important for team sports (Allam & Martin, 2021). It allows for promoting decision-making and autonomy in students, which is necessary to facilitate learning (MacLellan et al., 2019). Moreover, other creative approaches are implementing cross-curricular activities, teaching dancing in lessons, and promoting a healthy lifestyle (Light & Clarke, 2021). These methods can increase well-being and productivity and help students enhance various skills, which proves them to be effective approaches (Nienkemper & Grotlüschen, 2019). Furthermore, using ICT to support learning is another innovative method that combines physical activity and promotes effective teaching (MacLellan et al., 2019). As can be seen, various strategies can be utilized by sports science teachers to support creative and innovative learning.
Planning Inclusive Teaching and Learning With Theories, Principles, and Models of Learning, Communication, and Assessment
As a sports science teacher, I implement such theories and principles of learning as behaviorism and constructivism in my own practice. The behaviorist approach emphasizes the importance of relying on the experience of the learner (Ruixue, 2021). In accordance with this principle, the existing knowledge of students is viewed as one of the foundations for learning. For instance, a teacher helps learners build skills or learn how to play a particular game consistently, step by step. Moreover, social interaction is one of the constructivist principles essential to sports science (Ruixue, 2021). By incorporating teamwork and dialogue into lessons, I promote inclusivity and the development of communication and problem-solving skills.
Furthermore, I plan inclusive teaching based on the andragogical and pedagogical models of learning. Individualization, systematicity, and the connection of theory with practice are the core principles that are utilized in physical education (Light & Clarke, 2021). Such an approach supports the development of relevant skills in learners and enhances their ability to learn. Moreover, tailoring the material to the student’s needs allows me to improve inclusivity and support all learners.
Finally, my learning style preferences include Fleming’s visual-auditory-kinaesthetic (VAK) model and Gardner’s model of multiple intelligences. The VAK approach is used to determine and utilize the preferred way of obtaining new skills (Ruixue, 2021). In physical education, this model is essential to promote students’ exploration of different activities. In turn, the theory of multiple intelligences can be helpful in supporting children’s learning based on their dominant cognitive abilities. Finally, in my practice, communication and assessment are based on the principles of transparency and constructive feedback, which motivates learners to improve their skills.
Allam, F. C., & Martin, M. M. (2021). Issues and Challenges in Special Education: A Qualitative Analysis from Teacher’s Perspective. Southeast Asia Early Childhood, 10(1), 37-49. Web.
Buckley, D. (2019). Transition, decoding and heutagogy; A strategy for improving undergraduate learning in sport, health and exercise. Blended Learning in Practice, 1, 20-33. Web.
Light, R. L., & Clarke, J. (2021). Understanding the complexity of learning through movement. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 26(3), 268-278. Web.
MacLellan, J., Callary, B., & Young, B. W. (2019). Adult learning principles in Master’s Sport: A coach’s perspective. Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 31(1), 31-50. Web.
Nienkemper, B., & Grotlüschen, A. (2019). Using PIAAC data to learn more about the literacy practices of adults. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 38(4), 393-405. Web.
Quinn, H. (2019). Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. IU South Bend Undergraduate Research Journal, 19, 71-91. Web.
Ruixue, W. (2021). The learning theories of Piaget, Vygotsky & Bruner and their influence on teaching. Advances in Vocational and Technical Education, 3(1), 32-35. Web.